According to Carl G. Jung’s theory of psychological types, people can be characterized by their preference of general attitude:

  • Extraverted ( E ) vs. Introverted ( I )
  • Sensing ( S ) vs. Intuition ( N )
  • Thinking ( T ) vs. Feeling ( F )
  • Judging ( J ) Perceiving ( P )

The 3 areas of preferences introduced by Jung are dichotomies – bipolar dimensions where each pole represents a different preference.   Jung also proposed that in a person one of the four functions above is dominant – either a function of perception or a function of judging.   Isabel Briggs Myers, a researcher and practitioner of Jung’s theory, proposed to see the judging – perceiving relationship as a 4th dichotomy influencing personality type.

The first criterion, Extraversion – Introversion, signifies the source and direction of a person’s energy expression.  An extravert’s source and direction of energy expression is mainly in the external world, while an introvert has a source of energy mainly in their own internal world.

The second criterion, Sensing – Intuition, represents the method by which someone perceives information.  Sensing means that a person mainly believes information he or she receives directly from the external world.  Intuition means that a person believes mainly information he or she receives from the internal or imaginative world.

The third criterion, Thinking – Feeling, represents how a person processes information.  Thinking means that a person makes a decision mainly through logic.  Feeling means that, as a rule, he or she makes decision based on emotion, i.e. based on what they feel they should do.

The fourth criterion, Judging – Perceiving, reflects how a person implements the information he or she has processed.  Judging means that a person organizes all of his life events and, as a rule, sticks to his plans.  Perceiving means that he or she is inclined to improvise and explore alternative options.

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